Sundarbans Plantlife

সুন্দরবনের গাছপালা

Nestled between the land and sea in the tropical and sub-tropical regions lies the Sundarbans, the world's largest delta formed by the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers. This unique ecosystem supports a diverse array of plant life, known as mangroves, which thrive in the transitional habitat where sea water and fresh water meet.

The Sundarbans flora is characterized by its resilience and adaptability to the challenging environment. Among the notable species are the majestic Heritiera fomes, which dominates the landscape alongside the vibrant Sonneratia apetala. Visitors can also marvel at the resilient Excoecaria agallocha and the intriguing Ceriops decandra, each contributing to the rich tapestry of plant life in this UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Explore the Sundarbans and discover a botanical paradise unlike any other. From the lush foliage of Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) to the intricate root systems of Goran (Ceriops decandra), every corner of this forest holds a new wonder waiting to be discovered.

The Sundarbans Reserved Forest can be divided into three distinct areas*:

Sundarbans East

This region is characterized by freshwater environments where Sundri (Heritiera fomes) dominates, along with Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha), Passur (Xylocarpus mekongensis), and Kankra (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). In areas subject to frequent flooding, Nypa palm (Nypa fruticans) is widespread, while Shingra (Cynometra ramiflora) and Amur (Amoora cucullata) thrive in drier and wetter soils respectively. Goran (Ceriops decandra) is found in more saline areas.

Sundarbans South

This area experiences significant seasonal variations in salinity levels. Gewa is the dominant species here, often mixed with Sundri. Goran and Passur are frequently found in the understory.

Sundarbans West

Sparse Gewa and dense stands of Goran characterize this region. Discontinuous patches of Hantal palm (Phoenix paludosa) are found on drier ground and riverbanks. Sundri and Gewa are prominent throughout the area, accompanied by Dhundul (Xylocarpus granatum) and Kankra.

Throughout the Sundarbans, you'll find a diverse range of plant species, including grasses and palms like Poresia coaractata, Myriostachya wightiana, Imperata cylindrica, and Phragmites karka. Keora serves as an indicator species for newly accreted mudbanks, crucial for the local wildlife, especially spotted deer (Axis axis).

The forest also features extensive areas of brackish and freshwater marshes, intertidal mudflats, sandflats, sand dunes, and open grasslands, supporting various terrestrial shrubs and trees. The Sundarbans undergoes a succession process, with different plant communities occupying sites over time, gradually evolving into a climax community typical of the climatic zone.

In addition to its botanical wonders, the Sundarbans Reserved Forest is of interest to herbalists and the pharmaceutical industry, offering potential natural products with commercial applications.


Join us and explore the rich plant life of this unique ecosystem.

*Cited from: Rahman, L. M. (n.d.). The Sundarbans: A Unique Wilderness of the World. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-2. 2000.